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PostPosted: Thu May 27, 2004 8:15 pm 
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In the web, all our beliefs are justified by all our other beliefs, they are connected by an explanatory network, and changes in one place can require changes elsewhere. Thus all belief is connected to observation in the world. Are any beliefs immune from this process? Some beliefs do not depend on observation for their justification, in fact no observation whatever could show them to be wrong. Beliefs of this type are said to count as a-priori knowledge: Their justification is independent of experience, a-priori knowledge is contrasted with empirical knowledge which does depend on observation for its justification.

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PostPosted: Fri May 28, 2004 7:48 am 
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Parts of this sounds remarkably like this "free essay" available on the web:
Quote:
Kant starts off making two distinctions regarding kinds of knowledge, empirical/rational and formal/material. Empirical or experience-based knowledge is contrasted with rational knowledge, which is independent of experience. This distinction between empirical and rational knowledge rests on a difference in sources of evidence used to support the two different kinds of knowledge. Formal is contrasted with material knowledge. Formal knowledge has no specific subject matter; it is about the general structure of thinking about any subject matter whatsoever. Material knowledge is of a specific subject matter, either nature or freedom. Rational knowledge is metaphysics, of which there are two branches, the metaphysics of nature and of morals. The metaphysics of nature is supposed to provide rational knowledge of the laws of nature. These are not empirical laws; they are more like universal principles of nature that any empirical physical would presuppose, such as that no event in nature occurs without a natural cause. The metaphysics of freedom is supposed to provide knowledge of the laws of freedom. These are the universal rules which free agents devise to govern them. Thus, Kant's grounding, his initial attempt at a critique of rational reason, is an investigation of the possibility of purely rational knowledge of morals. Take, for example, the Moral Rule: Thou shalt not lie. If the moral law is valid as the basis of moral obligation or duty, then it must be necessary. Kant using the word "necessity" means that the rule obligates or binds whatever the conditions or in all circumstances. It also means that the rule applies to all rational beings and not only to human beings. In this second sense we can say that the rule is universally binding. So in fact, moral rules are universal and necessary. If a moral rule is to be universal and necessary, the moral law must be derived from concepts of pure reason alone. Therefore, if a moral rule or law can only be derived from reason alone, there must be a pure moral philosophy whose task is to provide such a derivation. In the "Grounding", Kant sets himself the task of establishing the "supreme principle of morality" from which to make such a derivation. According to Kant good will and only a good will is intrinsically good. Kant distinguishes two different types of intrinsic or extrinsic goods. If a thing is only extrinsically good, then it is possible for that thing not to be good, or to be bad or evil. Intrinsic goodness is goodness in itself; if a thing is intrinsically good, its goodness is essential to it; and its goodness is not a function of factors other than itself. Kant holds that only a good will, not happiness, is intrinsically good. The idea that it is reason rather than natural impulse which guides action for the sake of happiness is false. Parts of a person perform their functions by surviving and this provides happiness for the person. Reason functions poorly in serving that purpose; instinct does better job. Natural instinct rather than reason provides better for happiness. Kant distinguishes between having a reason to act and acting for a reason. The motivating reason is the reason for which agent acts. A justifying reason is the reason that justifies, warrants, provides the criterion of rightness for the action. The agent's motivating reason might or might not provide a justifying reason for his action. Kant then defines three types of motivating reasons. One type of non-moral motivation is natural motivation. Action in accord with duty is motivated by immediate or direct inclination. Direct inclination includes such motives as love, sympathy, instinct for self-preservation, or the desire for happiness. The other type of non-moral motivation is prudence. An action in accord with duty, but motivated by prudence, is action motivated by the pursuit of self-interest or happiness. Since all human beings naturally desire happiness, prudential motivation is indirectly motivated by a natural motivation. Moral motivation is the third type of motivation. The action is not only in accord with duty, but motivated by duty, done from duty, or for sake of duty. The agent's motivating reason, the reason for which he acts, is that the action is what morality demands and he wants above all to do what reason demands.
Copyright © 1999 - 2004 OPPapers.com
http://www.oppapers.com/read.php?id=346 ... c=KxyHiuJa
http://www.instant-essays.com/philosophy/index2.shtml


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PostPosted: Thu Jan 03, 2008 1:10 am 
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Maybe you could contact OPPapers ,and ask them the author of the quote.


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PostPosted: Thu Jan 03, 2008 5:47 am 
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All the sources point to philosopher Willard Van Orman Quine (1908-2000).

To use Quine’s web metaphor, all our beliefs are connected and mutually dependent on one another. Because of this interconnectedness, revisions in one part of the web necessitate revisions in other parts.
http://www.origins.org/articles/stump_s ... views.html

TB asks (August 22, 2005 - question #334 in WVQ guestbook): Where does Quine say, ""... the Web, all our beliefs are justified by all our beliefs, they are connected by an explanatory network..."."?
Two other people were seeking the same answer through Google more than a year ago. The broader context appears to be:
In the web, all our beliefs are justified by all our other beliefs, they are connected by an explanatory network, and changes in one place can require changes elsewhere. Thus all belief is connected to observation in the world. Are any beliefs immune from this process? Some beliefs do not depend on observation for their justification, in fact no observation whatever could show them to be wrong. Beliefs of this type are said to count as a-priori knowledge: Their justification is independent of experience, a-priori knowledge is contrasted with empirical knowledge which does depend on observation for its justification.
http://www.wvquine.org/


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PostPosted: Tue Apr 26, 2011 2:04 pm 
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Yes, I know I'm in an older thread. I don't need further reminding. :mrgreen:

I was actually looking for quotations to use for my essay when I happened to stumble upon this page. I found the quotation to be pretty useful as it actually matches the themes of what we're talking about in class. However, I want to make sure that I'm getting the right information from all the right sources. If I don't, it could be detrimental to my grade and my status in teh school. Was this quote from Willard Van Orman Quine? Where did you come up with this info? =)

I have considered hiring an essay writer to proof-read some bits of info. Perhaps I'll have them look over the posted essay to see if it's a reputable source. The only thing to do now is actually FIND an essay writer. Has anyone had any luck finding essay writers/proof-readers on Craig's or Angie's List? Thanks, guys!!!!


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PostPosted: Thu May 12, 2011 11:20 pm 
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i want just to add that our beliefs depend much on our perception of the world at all, due to it we will always find justifications to our beliefs!


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PostPosted: Thu Aug 04, 2011 5:53 am 
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philosopher :D
well done!!!


Last edited by pam009 on Thu Sep 01, 2011 6:02 am, edited 1 time in total.

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PostPosted: Thu Aug 11, 2011 6:33 am 
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PHILOSOPHY OF BUSINESS SERIOUS


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PostPosted: Thu Sep 15, 2011 1:49 am 
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most are now prefer like this


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PostPosted: Thu Nov 03, 2011 7:19 am 
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yes, this is nowadays reality...


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PostPosted: Mon Nov 14, 2011 5:43 am 
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Hello,
Well i think the best way to find a Quinton,.is Search engine.....

Every kind is available on there.....


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PostPosted: Tue Jan 10, 2012 9:21 am 
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yes mickle_john said it correctly . Google is your friend :)


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PostPosted: Thu Jan 12, 2012 2:52 am 
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Web searching doesn't help me either to know who's that mysterious author of that quote. Structurally, it sounds very solid and grounded.


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PostPosted: Thu Jan 12, 2012 11:50 pm 
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"Life is full of grief, to exactly the degree we allow ourselves to love other people."

I've tried googling it and there's a link that refers to Orson Scott Card's Shadow of the Giant, page 221. But I've got the book and I don't see it there.

Any ideas?

Edit: I have the paperback edition...which might explain why the page number is different. Anyone know the exact page number though, if this is the right book?

Edit2: Page 161. Nevermind, please close the topic.


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PostPosted: Thu Feb 02, 2012 8:45 pm 
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You're saying that our belief about one thing is greatly influenced by all our other beliefs. I totally agree to that.


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